Mining keeps making the news around the world due to its social and environmental impacts on local communities. Peru is no stranger to these types of social conflicts. In order to address my research question: ' Is mining a curse or bonanza for local communities in Peru?', I reviewed secondary literature where scholars such as Bebbington, Arellano, Veltmeyer, and De Echave question the perceptions of mining as bonanza for local communities, and suggest mining may instead be a curse for local communities. I also conducted primary research and explored this dichotomy from the perspective of a local indigenous community. In 2012, I conducted fieldwork for a case study on the mining town of Quiruvilca in the central Andes of Peru, surrounded by two large mines owned, until recently, by Canadian mining companies. I used an exploratory mixed research method to conduct and analyse 100 semi-structured interviews with local indigenous residents, in the urban area of Quiruvilca. In spite of scarce evidence of socio-economic development and limited employment opportunities, the majority of residents support mining in their community, mainly because of employment opportunities where few other options exist. --Leaf ii.