The purpose of this paper is to review the research on issues related to adolescent school transition. The definition of school transition in this paper includes the adjustment experienced when leaving one's elementary school and moving to a middle, junior, or secondary school. The specific transition issues reviewed are students' perceptions of the transition, and defining the challenges and contexts of adolescence. This paper looks at the characteristics that hinder success during school transition: perceptions of competence and motivation, culture and socioeconomic status and gender differences. Conversely, the characteristics fostering success during transition are discussed: risk and resilience, attachments and friends ' influence on adolescence during transition. The implications of these issues are important in planning and implementing counseling and transitional programs. The effects of full, partial or no program are also discussed. Suggestions are made to those working with adolescence at the school level during transition to utilize a team approach.